IGMP - (Internet Group Management Protocol) - Used to manage multicasting groups that are a set of hosts anywhere on a network that are listening for a transmission.

inference - The ability to derive information not explicitly available.

information owner - The person who has final corporate responsibility of data protection and would be the one held liable for any negligence when it comes to protecting the company\'s information assets. The person who holds this role

initialization vector - A non-secret binary vector used as the initializing input algorithm, or a random starting point, for the encryption of a plaintext block sequence to increase security by introducing additional cryptographic variance and to synchronize cryptographic equipment.

integrated process and product development - A management technique that simultaneously integrates all essential acquisition activities through the use of multidisciplinary teams to optimize the design, manufacturing, and supportability processes.

Integrated Product Team - A multidisciplinary software development team with representatives from many or all the stakeholder populations.

integrity - A security principle that makes sure that information and systems are not modified maliciously or accidentally.

intellectual property - Intangible assets (notably includes software and data).

internet control message protocol - Provides a means to send error messages and a way to probe the network to determine network availability.

internet group management protocol - Used to manage multicasting groups that are a set of hosts anywhere on a network that are listening for a transmission.

internet protocol version 4 - The dominant protocol that operates at the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Network Layer 3. IP is responsible for addressing packets so that they can be transmitted from the source to the destination hosts.

internet protocol version 6 - A modernization of IPv4 that includes a much larger address field: IPv6 addresses are 128 bits that support 2128, or approximately 3.4

Internet Small Computer System Interface - A converged protocol that encapsulates SCSI data in TCP segments in order to allow peripherals to be connected to computers across networks.

intrusion detection system - Software employed to monitor and detect possible attacks and behaviors that vary from the normal and expected activity. The IDS can be network based, which monitors network traffic, or host based, which monitors activities of a specific system and protects system files and control mechanisms.

intrusion prevention system - An intrusion detection system (IDS) that is also able to take actions to stop a detected intrusion.

inventory - Complete list of items.

IPPD - (Integrated Process and Product Development) - A management technique that simultaneously integrates all essential acquisition activities through the use of multidisciplinary teams to optimize the design, manufacturing, and supportability processes.

IPS - (Intrusion Prevention System) - An intrusion detection system (IDS) that is also able to take actions to stop a detected intrusion.

IPT - (Integrated Product Team) - A multidisciplinary software development team with representatives from many or all the stakeholder populations.

IPv4 - (Internet Protocol version 4) - the dominant protocol that operates at the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Network Layer 3. IP is responsible for addressing packets so that they can be transmitted from the source to the destination hosts.

IPv6 - (Internet Protocol version 6) - A modernization of IPv4 that includes a much larger address field: IPv6 addresses are 128 bits that support 2128, or approximately 3.4

iSCSI - (internet Small Computer System Interface) - A converged protocol that encapsulates SCSI data in TCP segments in order to allow peripherals to be connected to computers across networks.

isolation - The containment of processes in a system in such a way that they are separated from one another to ensure integrity and confidentiality.

IV - (Initialization Vector) - A non-secret binary vector used as the initializing input algorithm, or a random starting point, for the encryption of a plaintext block sequence to increase security by introducing additional cryptographic variance and to synchronize cryptographic equipment.

job rotation - The practice of having personnel become familiar with multiple positions within the organization as a means to reduce single points of failure and to better detect insider threats.

KDD - (Knowledge Discovery in Databases) - A mathematical, statistical, and visualization method of identifying valid and useful patterns in data.

kernel - The core of an operating system, a kernel manages the machine\'s hardware resources (including the processor and the memory) and provides and controls the way any other software component accesses these resources.

key - The input that controls the operation of the cryptographic algorithm. It determines the behavior of the algorithm and permits the reliable encryption and decryption of the message.

key - A discrete data set that controls the operation of a cryptography algorithm. In encryption, a key specifies the particular transformation of plaintext into ciphertext, or vice versa, during decryption. Keys are also used in other cryptographic algorithms, such as digital signature schemes and keyed-hash functions (also known as HMACs), which are often used for authentication and integrity.

key clustering - When different encryption keys generate the same ciphertext from the same plaintext message.

key length - The size of a key, usually measured in bits, that a cryptographic algorithm uses in ciphering or deciphering protected information.

keystroke monitoring - A type of auditing that can review or record keystrokes entered by a user during an active session.

knowledge discovery in databases - A mathematical, statistical, and visualization method of identifying valid and useful patterns in data.

lattice-based access control model - A mathematical model that allows a system to easily represent the different security levels and control access attempts based on those levels. Every pair of elements has a highest lower bound and a lowest upper bound of access rights. The classes stemmed from military designations.

LBAC - (Lattice-Based Control Model) - A mathematical model that allows a system to easily represent the different security levels and control access attempts based on those levels. Every pair of elements has a highest lower bound and a lowest upper bound of access rights. The classes stemmed from military designations.

LDAP - (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) - A directory service based on a subset of the X.500 standard that allows users and applications to interact with a directory.

least privilege - The security principle that requires each subject to be granted the most restrictive set of privileges needed for the performance of authorized tasks. The application of this principle limits the damage that can result from accident, error, or unauthorized use.

lifecycle - Phases that an asset goes through from creation to destruction.

lifecycle assurance - Confidence that a trusted system is designed, developed, and maintained with formal designs and controls. This includes design specification and verification, implementation, testing, configuration management, and distribution.

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol - A directory service based on a subset of the X.500 standard that allows users and applications to interact with a directory.

link encryption - A type of encryption technology that encrypts packets\' headers, trailers, and the data payload. Each network communications node, or hop, must decrypt the packets to read its address and routing information and then re-encrypt the packets. This is different from end-to-end encryption.

log - A record of actions and events that have taken place on a computer system.

logic bomb - A malicious program that is triggered by a specific event or condition.

logical access control system - Non-physical system that allows access based upon pre-determined policies.

loop coverage - This criterion requires sufficient test cases for all program loops to be executed for zero, one, two, and many iterations covering initialization, typical running, and termination (boundary) conditions.

loss potential - The potential losses that can be accrued if a threat agent actually exploits a vulnerability.

MAC - (Mandatory Access Control) - An access policy that restricts subjects\' access to objects based on the security clearance of the subject and the classification of the object. The system enforces the security policy, and users cannot share their files with other users.

MAD - (Maximum Allowable Downtime) - The measure of how long an organization can survive an interruption of critical functions.

maintenance hook - Instructions within a program\'s code that enable the developer or maintainer to enter the program without having to go through the usual access control and authentication processes. Maintenance hooks should be removed from the code

malware - Malicious software. Code written to perform activities that circumvent the security policy of a system. Examples are viruses, malicious applets, Trojan horses, logical bombs, and worms.